- Rome existed from roughly 500 BCE to 500 CE
- Was a Republic for first 500, and an empire for the second 500
- Grew for 500 years, peaked for 200 years, declined for 300 years
- Defeat of the Samnites in 295 BC
- First Punic War (264–241 BC) was a dispute over Sicily.
- Second Punic War (218–201 BC) with great Carthaginian general Hannibal
- 202 that Hannibal, recalled to defend Carthage, was defeated at the battle of Zama by Scipio Africanus.
- The Third Punic War (149–146 BC) ended with the complete destruction of the city.
- January 49, Julius Caesar, at the head of his army of veterans battle-hardened after eight years of campaigning, he crossed the River Rubicon and marched on Rome.
- 44 Caesar’s murder.
- Two decades of civil war. Brutus and Cassius were defeated by an alliance of Mark Antony and Octavian.
- In turn, this fragile partnership collapsed. Antony sought help in Egypt and the support of its ruler, Cleopatra. The destruction of the Egyptian fleet at Actium in 31 BC and Antony’s suicide the following year secured Octavian’s position and smeared his rival’s reputation, under the newly fabricated title of Augustus— ‘the divinely favored one”.
- Late summer 70, Titus besieged and captured Jerusalem.
- 66–74 Masada
1st century CE
2nd century CE